Turkey 1923 Agreement Expires
As U.S. commentators debate whether Turkey will join U.S. President Barack Obama`s coalition against the Islamic State, some Turkish experts expect more serious foreign policy challenges, such as what will happen in 2023, when the Lausanne Treaty expires and Turkey`s modern borders become obsolete. According to secret articles signed nearly a century ago by Turkish and British diplomats in a Swiss maritime zone, British troops will reocquire fortresses on the Bosphorus and the Greek Orthodox Patriarch will revive a Byzantine mini-state within the walls of the city of Istanbul. On the positive side for Turkey, the country will finally be allowed to draw on its huge oil reserves, which were not limited before, and perhaps to reclaim Western Thrace. It`s a thing of the day. The Treaty of Lausanne (The Treaty of Lausanne) was a peace treaty negotiated at the 1922-23 Lausanne Conference and signed on 24 July 1923 at the Palais de Rumine in Lausanne. It has officially resolved the conflict that originally existed between the Ottoman Empire and the Allied French Republic, the British Empire, Italy, the Kingdom of Japan, the Kingdom of Greece and the Kingdom of Romania since the beginning of the First World War.  The original text of the contract is in French.  This was the result of a second attempt at peace after the failure of the Treaty of Sevres. The old treaty was signed in 1920, but was later rejected by the Turkish national movement, which was fighting against its conditions. The Treaty of Lausanne put an end to the conflict and defined the boundaries of the modern Turkish Republic. In the treaty, Turkey abandoned all pretensions about the rest of the Ottoman Empire and, in return, the Allies recognized Turkish sovereignty within their new borders.
 It provided for the exchange of Greek-Turkish population and allowed unlimited civilian passage on the Turkish street (but not militarily; this would be done with the Montreux Convention). Erdogan also said that Turkey had been forced to sign the Treaty of Sevres in 1920 and to sign the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. He said Turkey was obliged to cede the Aegean islands to Greece. Under the Treaty of Sevres, Turkey had to grant vast areas under its territory. It had to relinquish sovereignty over Cyprus, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Iraq and the Levant, with the exception of some cities in Syria, such as Urfa, Adana and Gaziantep, Kells and Marsh. In November 1914, Turkey also had to relinquish its political and financial rights vis-à-vis Egypt and Sudan. Maksut Serim, nicknamed Erdogan`s „secret guard,“ told a friend in 2013, in an intercepted phone conversation, that „this is the year the Lausanne Treaty expired and the articles of the Lausanne Treaty were put on hold,“ claiming that Turkey was capable of seizing underground resources, including deposits in northern Iraq. The treaty was signed in Switzerland in 1923 and drew the borders between Turkey and Greece. Mohamed Abdel-Kader Khalil, an Egyptian expert on Turkish affairs, said: „Turkish foreign policy in the Middle East is linked to the use of Turkish military capabilities in the region.